Autism and Down’s Syndrome Risk in Diethylstilbestrol-exposed Offspring

Birth Defects in the Sons, Daughters and Grand Children of Women who were Exposed in Utero to DES

2009 Study Abstract

The DES Combined Cohort Follow-Up Study

“In 1994, the first combined cohort questionnaires were mailed to 6,551 second generation women, including 4,459 exposed to DES in utero, and 2,092 unexposed.”

“Based on the mothers reports, genitourinary anomalies affecting the sons included horseshoe-shaped kidney, renal agenesis, born with one kidney; penile/testicular defects included hypospadias and testicular atrophy; skeletal anomalies included scoliosis, club foot, polydactyly, torticollis, and hip dysplasia; heart defects included heart murmur, ventricular septal disease, tetralogy of fallot, atrial septal defect, and pulmonic stenosis; neurological anomalies included cerebral palsy, ptosis, and autism; muscle or tissue anomalies included cleft palate, hernia, and torticollis; chromosomal/hereditary syndromes included Down’s Syndrome, chrondodystrophy, and adrenoleukodystrophy; eye conditions included amblyopia, cataract, and strabismux; hearing loss was unspecified; gastrointestinal defects included trache-oesophageal fistula/atresia, and intestinal or gall bladder anomalies; miscellaneous conditions (defined as conditions affecting fewer than 5 sons) included benign tumors, cysts, fistulas, skin anomalies, and blood disorders.

Based on mothers’ reports, skeletal anomalies affecting the daughters included hip dysplasia, scoliosis, club foot, missing limbs, and extra digits; heart defects included atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect; chromosomal/heritable conditions included Down’s syndrome, Noonan’s syndrome, and Williams syndrome; neurological anomalies included cerebral palsy, and anencephalus; genitourinary anomalies primarily involved the kidney and included double kidney, horseshoe shaped kidney, renal agenesis and dysgenesis, and born with one kidney; skin anomalies included hemangioma; miscellaneous conditions (defined as conditions affecting fewer than 5 daughters) included benign tumors, cysts, cleft palate, anomalies of the eye/vision or ear/hearing, learning disabilities, blood disorders, muscle or musculoskeletal anomalies, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.”

The DES Third Generation Cohort Study

“Questionnaire mailings to the third generation women began in August 2000 and were completed in April 2003. Questionnaires were returned by 793 (88%) of the 898 women whose contact information was provided by their mothers, including 463 (90%) exposed and 330 (86%) unexposed. The third generation questionnaire queried women for demographic information, hormonal and reproductive factors, and health conditions, including birth defects. Self-reported birth defects were skeletal anomalies including hip dysplasia and missing forearm; congenital heart conditions including heart murmur and atrial septal defect; chromosomal conditions included Down’s syndrome and cystic fibrosis; neurological conditions included cerebral palsy and hemiparesis; miscellaneous conditions (defined as conditions affecting fewer than 5 daughters) included anomalies of the eye, ear, skin, and/or blood, and pyloric stenosis.”

  • Read and download the full study (free access) Birth Defects in the Sons and Daughters of Women who were Exposed in utero to Diethylstilbestrol (DES), on the NCBI, PubMed, PMC2874639, 2009 Nov 30.
  • Image credit The NCBI PMC2874639/table/T2.