Diethylstilbestrol Contraindicated in Pregnancy: Drug’s Use Linked to Adenocarcinoma in the Offspring
Selected Item from the FDA Drug Bulletin, November 1971, National Institutes of Health, PMCID: PMC1518220.
” WE WISH TO BRING to the attention of all physicians, hospitals, and medical personnel an important possible toxic effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) reported for the first time in April 1971 by Herbst et al. From their studies the authors concluded that maternal ingestion of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy appears to increase the risk of vaginal adenocarcinoma developing years later in the offspring exposed. The authors studied eight cases of adenocarcinoma of the vagina in patients born between 1946 and 1951. The malignancies were identified and treated between 1966 and 1969. In seven of the eight cases, there was a history -of maternal use of diethylstilbestrol. Because this type of malignancy in young girls had rarely been reported previously, the authors conducted a retrospective investigation in an attempt to find factors that may be associated with such malignancy in this age group. Four matched controls were established for each patient and the data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. A statistically significant relationship was observed for three variables: diethylstilbestrol given during pregnancy (p=.00001), bleeding in that pregnancy (p=less than .05) and prior pregnancy loss (p=less than .01). It is obvious that the most significant of the variables is the administration of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy. Since publication of this study, five additional cases of this malignancy associated with the maternal use of diethylstilbestrol have been reported by Greenwald et al. Dr. Herbst, in a recent communication to FDA, has reported an additional 15 cases associated with use of this drug, bringing the total number of known cases to 27. It must be emphasized that this type of epidemiologic study defines only an association and not necessarily a cause-and-effect relationship. Further studies are underway to clarify the significance of these findings.
In the meantime, the FDA is initiating the following precautionary actions:
- All manufacturers of DES or closely related congeners (dienestrol, hexestrol, benzestrol, promethestrol) are being notified that appropriate changes will be required in the labeling for such drugs. This change will consist in the listing of pregnancy as a contraindication to the use of diethylstilbestrol and the other above-mentioned compounds.
- All other estrogens will be required to have the following WARNING in their labeling: “A statistically significant association has been reported between maternal ingestion during pregnancy of diethylstilbestrol and the occurrence of vaginal carcinoma developing years later in the offspring. Whether such an association is applicable to all estrogens is not known at this time. In any event, estrogens are not indicated for use during pregnancy.“
- Epidemiological studies are being initiated to determine the true incidence of this disease in young women, the number at risk, the characteristics of patient populations with this malignancy, and the probability of a cause-and-effect relationship.
Both FDA and the medical profession face a responsibility to help determine whether this reported association constitutes a cause-and-effect relationship. We ask that all physicians consider appropriate steps to assist FDA casefinding and to protect any patients who might be at risk.
It may be possible to trace the offspring of those mothers who received DES during pregnancy. All physicians should be especially’ alert for young women whose mothers may have received hormonal therapy during pregnancy, particularly those young women who may be experiencing irregular vaginal bleeding. The association should be a routine consideration for physicians whose practice includes young women.
This is a previously unsuspected health problem. Further information is essential to the FDA and to the medical profession. We ask your help in reporting any cases you encounter for entry in a case registry.
FDA will take every possible step to insure that you are kept abreast of new information as soon as it can be gathered and analyzed.
For your convenience, an adverse reaction reporting form is printed below. FDA will forward a supply of forms to each practicing physician as soon as they are printed. Facsimile forms are acceptable. ”
Many articles about DiEthylStilbestrol (DES) mention that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned DES for pregnant women in 1971.
The FDA did NOT ban DES, but issued a warning and urged doctors to stop prescribing it for their pregnant patients. Most doctors did, but not all, and the information regarding the contraindication took many years to reach France and other European countries where the drug continued to be prescribed to pregnant women. Since 1971, many studies have shown a variety of health effects associated with DES exposure, adenocarcinoma but also breast cancer and infertility to name just a few. In 2011, 40 years after the DES cancer link was made, the FDA acknowledged the DES tragedy but refused to apologize to the many victims of this drug scandal. To this day, not one drug company has ever apologized or accepted responsibility for the DES tragedy.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources
Few years ago we started looking for DES images and videos, as mentioned on this gallery page.
With the years, the images have been arranged accordingly onto several Flickr albums.
Awesome Flickr Gallery:
fast, efficient and super easy plugin to create customisable photo galleries
Here is an example – on this post – from farming and pharma industries advertising DES.
Host June Stoyer interviews the top CEO’s, experts, movers and shakers that affect the organic industry as well as our environment. The Organic View show explores all of the issues impacting the organic industry, proposed regulations, the environment, politics, living green and sustainability.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA where the DES cancer link was established 40 years ago, is making history again with the first DES Breast Cancer court cases on behalf of 53 DES daughters.
The lawyers at Aaron M. Levine & Associates law firm, after 50 years of successfully representing hundreds of DES daughters for infertility, vaginal and cervical cancer, and preterm delivery, have turned their attention to the risk of DES breast cancer in DES daughters.
Aaron M.Levine & Associates are the only law firm in America taking this focus and investment. They are currently representing DES daughters for their breast cancer injuries and are accepting new cases for review and evaluation.
The United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the most recent national study sponsored by NIH, (Palmer J, Wise L, Hatch E, et al. “Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of breast cancer.” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(8):1509-1514.) concluded that DES daughters over the age of 40 are at a significantly increased risk for breast cancer.
In confirming the Palmer study in court as a valid and important reopening of the never-ending DES tragedy, Dr. Adami stated:
” so the bottom line of this is, it provides strong evidence that DES exposure increases the risk, and that the risk increase starts sometime around age 40 and then grows as women get older.”
Diethylstilbestrol, primarily promoted by Eli Lilly and Company and E.R. Squibb & Sons (the predecessor to Bristol-Myers Squibb) was given to millions of pregnant women in the 1950’s and 1960’s and was contraindicated for use in pregnancy in 1971 when it was discovered to cause cancer and malformations of the reproductive tract. Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick recently declared “DES Awareness Week” in July 2011 commemorating the experience of DES daughters and warning of breast cancer risks.
The trial taking place in federal court opened on September, 07th 2011 and continues until September, 23rd 2011 as the 53 DES daughters involved put on further biology, toxicology, oncology, and obstetrics and gynaecology experts to support Dr. Adami’s opinion of this substantial DES breast cancer risk in the daughters.
” There has been little press coverage and apparently little public attention. The chemical companies prefer it that way. It’s just two lawyers for the plaintiffs and about 20 lawyers representing the chemical companies in the court room! “
comments DES Info, a group created by several DES daughters as a way to proactively share information about Diethylstilbestrol.
Show your support for the Historic DES Breast Cancer Court Cases
The hearings are open to the public and support from the whole DES community is much needed.
If you can please:
- Spread the word on your social media networks
- Post your comments and messages of support on DES Info who is closely following and strongly supporting the historic DES breast cancer court cases
- Respond to the DES Info call to attend the hearings especially on Monday 19th and Tuesday 20th September – The result of this hearing will be to determine if the first ever DES class action suit in the US will be allowed to go forward. There has never been one before, because a class action suit requires a commonality of injuries in the US.
The outcome of the historic DES breast cancer court cases in the USA will have repercussions not only in the USA but around the world as DES victims everywhere are struggling to get compensation for the devastating side effects of DES exposure.
My thoughts are with the lawyers, scientists and more importantly the DES daughters involved in the hearings. Somehow, they represent all of us.
The Boston Federal Courthouse is at:
United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts — Boston
1 Courthouse Way
Boston, Massachusetts 02210 – USA
The hearings will likely begin at 9:30 a.m. and go until 4:30 p.m. each day, with lunch in between.
If you want any more information or feel you could help in any way, please contact Aaron M. Levine & Associates.
More DES DiEthylStilbestrol Resources
Listen to the short radio interview featuring Carol Devine, founder and coordinator of DES Action Australia (NSW), and Dr Jules Black, Queensland Gyneocologist and sexuality expert, about the silence around the DES issue and the difficulties to push for a much needed Australian DES National Public Education Campaign 10 years after the USA first DES national campaign launched in 2001. In Australia it is estimated that 740,000 people have been exposed to DES diethylstilbestrol, yet no such campaign has been held. These people are not receiving proper medical treatment, or making truly informed decisions about their healthcare, as a result.
“Culture of Silence on sex hormone link to cancer“ – Radio Interview about DES featuring Carol Devine and Dr Jules Black, produced by Annamarie Reyes April 05th, 2011.
Below is a short summary and a few quotes from this interesting radio interview from down under:
DES National Public Education Campaigns or the Wall of Silence
The USA has moved to legislate to make it compulsory that a DES National Public Education Campaign is held for DES affected communities. Dr Black explains that the USA acting first on public campaigns came out of increased pressure amongst affected women in the number of millions. In Australia he says “I found constantly with my patients a wall of silence”.
“Since the Food and Drug Administration approved this drug it was important for them to make sure this drug was ok (…). It wasn’t (…). There was a certain degree of cover up fear at first but then when the story came out and due to pressure by female organisations, support groups and so on, they admitted”, comments Dr Black. The FDA acknowledged the DES tragedy 40 years after they issued a warning about the DES cancer link.
The equivalent support group in Australia pushing for change is DES Action Australia (NSW). Carol Devine, the coordinator, explains the strugle to put the issue on the public agenda since the 1970’s when the issue came to light. The USA could not keep it quiet anymore. Too many people were affected by Diethylstilbestrol exposure. The USA went as far as holding a DES National Public Education Campaign in 2001 which led to legislate that research should happen and DES and potential DES affected people should be informed. “Over there”, comments Carol Devine, “there is a fantastic body of women called DES Action USA. They are all right behind making sure these things happen in the USA”. In Australia, Carol Devine sent all the documentation papers about the USA DES National Public Education Campaign to the Australian Federal Health Minister. A few days later she received the package back in her doorstep saying “We do not require these”. “It has been a total shut down on this issue in Australia and quite frankly this is a national disgrace” comments Carol. Advocates in Australia have no choice but take the matters to the Human Rights Commission.
What’s the situation in France and Europe?
In France and in other parts of Europe, the FDA warning issued in 1971 about the health concerns related to Di-ethyl Stilbestrol didn’t get heard and the drug continued to be prescribed to pregnant women until the late 1970’s early 1980’s. The support group Réseau DES France was established in 1994. Their first DES public education campaign was launched in 1997 with the brochure “DES Distilbène® Exposure, the questions you ask yourself” aimed at raising DES awareness amongst the general public. Since 1994 Réseau DES France has engaged in many areas (information, cooperation, advocacy and lobbying, and DES lawsuits to name just a few). They’ve achieved many results and successes such a the right to longer maternity leave for DES pregnancies.
In the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands support groups have also been created. DES Action UK launched a petition in 2009 to demand a Public Enquiry aimed at investigating the effects of the drug diethylstilboestrol (DES) on women. They collected 130 signatures. “The government statistics are hopelessly out of date and information is not freely or widely made available by the government” write the petition creators Nick de Bois and Barbara Killick.
I can’t stress enough the importance and crucial need for efficient DES National Public Education Campaigns to ensure all people affected by DES exposure are aware of its side effects for them and their children. Collaboration between DES Action groups is also very important. The silence around the DES issue poses health risks in itself as many people including doctors don’t even know what DES is, what the health risks are, and how to prevent them. With so many people affected by it, and so few aware that they have been exposed, it is the responsibility of our governments to raise public awareness of this global health catastrophe.
I wish DES Action Australia (NSW) the very best of luck with their battle for an Australian DES National Public Education Campaign and hope more DES daughters and sons will make their voice heard. We are not alone in this; Millions of people around the world have been exposed to DES so surely if we shout loud enough we will be heard not only by governments but also by fellow DES victims unaware of their DES exposure and its health risks.
Sources: Réseau DES France, DES Action Australia (NSW), DES Action UK
The DES (Diethylstilbestrol) Drug Disaster, 40 Years Later
Below is a guest post from DES Daughter and WONDER DRUG screenwriter Caitlin McCarthy.
The DES Tragedy Is Far From Over
By Caitlin McCarthy
April 22, 2011 marks the 40th anniversary of the DES cancer link being made at Boston’s Massachusetts General Hospital. DES (diethylstilbestrol), a toxic and carcinogenic synthetic estrogen, is considered the world’s first drug disaster. It was prescribed to millions of pregnant women for decades: from 1938 until 1971 (and in a small number of cases for several years thereafter) in the United States; and until the mid-1980s in parts of Latin America, Europe, Australia, and the Third World. The currently proven effects of exposure include a rare vaginal cancer in DES Daughters; greater risk for breast cancer in DES Mothers; possible risk for testicular cancer in DES Sons; abnormal reproductive organs; infertility; high-risk pregnancies; and an increased risk for breast cancer in DES Daughters after age 40. There are a number of other suspected effects, including auto-immune disorders, but many of these effects are still awaiting further research.
I’m a DES Daughter who was born at the tail end of the tragedy in the U.S. My mother was unknowingly prescribed a prenatal vitamin which contained DES. I didn’t discover my DES exposure until 2005, when a doctor made the connection during a colposcopy. How scary is that?
What’s even scarier is that I’m not alone. Around the world, there are thousands – maybe even millions – of people walking around today, totally unaware that they, too, were exposed to DES. All of these people are not receiving proper medical treatment, or making truly informed decisions about their healthcare, as a result.
In an effort to raise awareness about DES, I wrote a feature film screenplay entitled WONDER DRUG. Set in Boston, Massachusetts, WONDER DRUG interweaves the lives of a Big Pharma executive, feminist doctor, and thirtysomething newlywed across different decades. The script has won awards or received nominations in over 20 international film festival screenplay competitions and labs, including selection as an Alfred P. Sloan Foundation script for the prestigious Hamptons Screenwriters Lab, and a live staged reading of select scenes at the 15th Annual Hamptons International Film Festival, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation and starring Steve Guttenberg (THREE MEN AND A BABY) and Alysia Reiner (SIDEWAYS). Acclaimed independent director Tom Gilroy (SPRING FORWARD) has expressed an interest in directing WONDER DRUG. All we need now is financing. (Producers can contact me via my official website: www.caitlinmccarthy.com.)
I also worked jointly with the offices of US Senators John Kerry (D-MA) and Scott Brown (R-MA) on obtaining an apology from the FDA for the DES drug disaster. That effort was first publicized on acclaimed author Elizabeth Searle’s website, and later picked up by renowned media outlets such as The Huffington Post.. (Thank you, Diana Bianchini, for writing the HuffPo piece!).
The FDA declined to apologize, but did send a three-page letter to Senators Kerry and Brown acknowledging DES as a “tragedy” on February 22, 2011. Upon reading the FDA acknowledgement, I immediately emailed Jeanne Ireland (who signed the FDA’s letter), asking the FDA to remove DES from its webpage touting DES as one of its milestones in “100 Years of Promoting and Protecting Women’s Health.” Jeanne Ireland didn’t respond to me. Instead, she palmed me off on Marsha B. Henderson, Associate Commissioner for Women’s Health (Acting) for the FDA. (Check out the communication between Caitlin and Ms. Henderson by reading the post: The FDA is lying by omission).
To this day, the offensive item about DES remains on the FDA’s website. And to this day, not one drug company has ever apologized or accepted responsibility for the DES tragedy. Nevertheless, they have paid millions in verdicts and out-of-court settlements to DES Daughters and Sons who suffered injuries from their exposure.
I am grateful that the 40th anniversary of the DES cancer link has triggered a flurry of press coverage. The Boston Globe recently ran a feature story about concerns for third generation effects; WCVB-TV Boston’s “Chronicle” newsmagazine aired a DES segment; Reuters published an item about DES Grandsons; New England Journal of Medicine ran an article about living with DES exposure; and Psychology Today features a story about remembering DES’s “tragic chapter in American childbirth.” Even the old “Lou Grant” TV episode about DES is making the rounds on Hulu.
On April 25, 1985, Ronald Reagan was the only US President to proclaim a National DES Awareness Week. No other president has ever done that. Why? DES is far from a dead issue.
I will continue my fight to raise awareness about the DES drug disaster. DES victims are the canaries in the coalmine when it comes to synthetic estrogen. The reproductive abnormalities, cancers, and infertility we deal with daily show what could happen to the human race if we don’t employ the precautionary principle. It suggests we act to protect public health when there is credible evidence of harm, rather than wait for absolute proof. What we do now clearly has an impact on future generations. Please join this fight with me.
ABOUT CAITLIN MCCARTHY:
Caitlin McCarthy received her Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing from Emerson College, which is ranked by U.S. News & World Report as one of the best graduate programs in the country. An award-winning screenwriter at international film festivals and labs, Caitlin has a screenplay project in development: RESISTANCE with Populus Pictures and director Si Wall (SPEED DATE; THE DINNER PARTY). In addition to screenwriting, Caitlin serves as an English teacher at an inner-city public high school. Prior to education, Caitlin worked in public relations, where she fostered relationships with the press and crafted messages for companies that were delivered worldwide.
It is now 40 years since the connection between DES exposure and Cancer in DES daughters was discovered. On May 19th 2011, the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, Massachusetts, USA where this connection was first made, will be hosting a DES (Diethylstibestrol) symposium. DES daughters will share their experiences and discuss with DES specialists the lessons learned about embryogenesis, fertility, and carcinogenesis from in utero exposures. The DES symposium is free and open to the general public. Please show your support to this event by attending or spreading the word.
The timing and location of the DES (Diethylstilbestrol) symposium have historical significance. In the late 1960s, there was an unprecedented appearance of a rare vaginal cancer in young women. Cases of Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma (CCA) were diagnosed in an age group never before found to develop it. A DES mother raised the question of whether her daughter’s vaginal cancer might be connected to DES exposure in utero. Doctors confirmed the link between DES and cancer in 1971 and published their findings in the April 1971 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. It is at the MGH that the DES cancer link was first made on April 22, 1971.
In 2011, in the USA and in many other corners of the world, diethylstibestrol continues to affect the lives of not only the DES mothers who were prescribed the carcinogenic drug, the lives of their daughters and sons who have been exposed in utero, but also the lives of their grandchildren. And unfortunately, cancer is not the only health issue that has been linked to DES since 1971. The DES health concerns are still as relevant today as they were in the late 1960’s. Research is still needed, and more needs to be done to ensure the DES victims are not forgotten. The DES (Diethylstilbestrol) symposium is an important event which will contribute to raise awareness of the devastating long-term side effects of synthetic hormones such as diethylstilbestrol.
DES (Diethylstilbestrol) Symposium
Thursday 19th May 2011
Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts – Masa Ether Dome, Bulfinch Building
from 3:00 pm to 5:30 pm
Reception from 5:30 pm to 6:30 pm in the Ether Dome, Bulfinch 4.
Part I (3 – 4 pm) of the May 19, 2011 symposium will feature a DES Daughters’ Panel, moderated by Annekathryn Goodman, MD. The DES Daughters’ Panel will include:
- Andrea Goldstein, RN – DES daughter and DES activist since 1978; recognized throughout the DES community as the historian for the DES issue.
- Caitlin McCarthy – DES Daughter and screenwriter of WONDER DRUG (www.wonderdrugthemovie.com), an award-winning screenplay about the DES drug disaster (currently seeking financing).
- Cheryl Roth – DES daughter who does not want the DES tragedy forgotten. She is interested in ensuring that future generations who may be affected by the ingestion of the drug by grandmothers, great-grandmothers, etc. have knowledgeable physicians to treat them.
Part II (4 – 5:30 pm) will be the Scientific Session, moderated by John Schorge, MD. Speakers and topics will include:
- Michael Greene, MD (Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine) – History of the use of DES in pregnancy.
- Robert Young, MD (Department of Pathology) – Pathologic changes in the female reproductive tract after in utero DES exposure
- Thomas Toth, MD (Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility) – The structural changes in the uterus and cervix and implications for fertility after in utero DES exposure.
- Marcela Del Carmen, MD (Division of Gynecologic Oncology) – Clear Cell Carcinoma of the vagina in DES exposed women.
- Annekathryn Goodman, MD (Division of Gynecologic Oncology) – Endocrine disruptors and the potential molecular basis of carcinogenesis DES exposure.
DES events such as the DES symposium are a great acknowledgement that Di-ethyl stilbestrol is not something of the past. The DES tragedy is far from over so please help support this event by attending or spreading the word. The Diethylstibestrol DES symposium is free and open to the general public.
This event is sponsored by Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Sources: DES Info.
This week I am honoured to publish a guest post from Carol Devine, DES daughter, Founder and Coordinator of the Sydney based group, DES Action Australia-NSW, which formed in 1995. Many people, including those unaffected by Diethylstilbestrol I am sure will be interested in reading Carol’s post as it shows how long and difficult the road is for a DES activist advocating for the needs of DES exposed people in Australia.
DES Activist outside USA – An Australian Journey
It is my impression that in comparison with USA, the downplaying, dismissiveness and resistance by governments in countries outside USA to the DES exposure issue have been stauncher. In Australia, to the demise of our comparatively smaller DES exposed population, the DES problem has been minimised, even with the glib remark, “It’s only a problem in USA”. Cold and uncaring comments that disenfranchise DES exposed Australians, have possibly evolved from something that runs much deeper and are firmly entrenched.
My pet theory is: that from the time the DES cancer link was made in USA in 1971, until the time this causal link first reached the news media in other DES-affected countries, drug companies and those with vested interest exerted utmost damage control outside USA. In concentrated effort, every opportunity would have been taken within this bonus timeframe to use influence to ensure government ideas on managing the DES exposure problem would protect those companies. Those ideas by government would be “set in concrete” for all time. Just a theory of mine – it’s no rocket science! However, it seeks to explain those cold, uncaring comments and the horrific facts revealed when our DES Action group in NSW, Australia, accessed government documents. It might also explain the uncanny similarity in the worded government responses to DES Action UK and DES Action Australia-NSW.
To be frank, from my viewpoint, the journey for an activist advocating for the needs of DES exposed people to government is like “banging your head against a brick wall” – many times. However, there may be greater chance of some success by developing the strongest possible argument when lobbying government. This means having the best available information. For this, it means digging – a lot.
Digging for numbers
Citing the best feasible estimate of the extent of the DES exposure in Australia is absolutely necessary for government recognition of the DES problem. No numbers equates to having no significant problems, or even not to exist at all. In Australia, to obtain an estimate, the most reliable data sources are the general population health data (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare -established 1982) for incidence of clear cell adenocarcinoma vagina/cervix and the State Cancer Registries (prior to 1982). Reports offering an estimate by cancer experts to government have been found to be grossly inaccurate. Adverse drug reaction reports are also unreliable, since cases of the DES associated cancer are not always reported by medical professionals. Delving into government comments about any unusual data trends and investigating inconsistencies with data have been important. By delving it was found that in the early 1980s, a doctor phoned the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) to instruct that reports of DES associated cancer no longer be recorded. To our dismay, the TGA (Australia’s drug watchdog) complied with this.
Digging for history
It makes sense in advocacy to know the full inside story of previous management. In Australia, Freedom of Information applications were necessary to obtain committee minutes of the TGA in relation to how the DES problem has been addressed since 1971. The minutes are all-telling and disturbing for everyone affected by DES, uncovering many shocking revelations. However, the information contained is very necessary in providing a baseline for approaches in lobbying. These documents showed the TGA’s first decision was to take a reactive role to any media arising about DES, rather a proactive role in issuing media releases. This decision was made out of consideration of the possibility of creating alarm.
Our Lobbying Experience
With strong argument for improved management of the DES problem, the government still manages to duck and weave continually. The experience is of “going around in circles”, whilst at the same time, trying to become familiar with the unreliable government “machine”. Astonishingly, the DES issue is shoved aside by individuals holding government positions with roles appropriate to giving attention to the DES problem. In the trial and error process of lobbying, the problem is finding exactly where the DES issue can position itself. DES Action Australia-NSW has recently presented the DES issue for the attention of the Australian Human Rights Commissioner. In spite of the many negative aspects of the lobbying experience mentioned in this article, there is still to this day, no reason to stop these endeavours on behalf of DES exposed people.
Importance of networking
If situations and experiences are similar, the power of networking can never be underestimated. Together, there can be learning from each other’s successes and failures. It is my hope that by sharing our experience, it will encourage networking between activists for the DES cause, and in particular, between activists outside USA.
The journey of DES Action Australia-NSW can be traced in greater detail at www.desnsw.blogspot.com
Coordinator, DES Action Australia-NSW
(Note: DES Action Australia-NSW operates separately and is independent of the Melbourne-based group DES Action Australia)