DES adverse impact on fetal germ cells, impairing neurodevelopment of offspring
We conducted a large-scale cohort analysis to assess the association between use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and third-generation ADHD. The observed associations were robust to covariate adjustment and sensitivity analyses. Despite animal evidence of adverse multigenerational consequences—including neurodevelopmental disorders—of EDC exposure, to date only a few studies have explored the potential multigenerational implications of EDC exposure in humans. These studies have only considered diethylstilbestrol exposure, and none has studied neurodevelopmental outcomes. Some studies have reported increased risk of hypospadias in grandsons of women exposed to diethylstilbestro during pregnancy. Titus-Ernstoff et al found delayed menstrual regularization, higher odds of irregular menstrual periods, and fewer live births among women whose grandmothers used diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy. Birth defects have also been found in grandchildren of women who used diethylstilbestrol when pregnant.
2018 Study Key Points
Is exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy associated with adverse multigenerational neurodevelopmental outcomes?
A cohort study of 47 450 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II found significantly elevated odds for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the grandchildren (third generation) of users of diethylstilbestrol, a potent endocrine disruptor.
Exposure to endocrine disruptors during pregnancy may be associated with multigenerational neurodevelopmental deficits.
Animal evidence suggests that endocrine disruptors affect germline cells and neurodevelopment. However, to date, the third-generation neurodevelopmental outcomes in humans have not been examined.
To explore the potential consequences of exposure to diethylstilbestrol or DES across generations—specifically, third-generation neurodevelopment.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
This cohort study uses self-reported health information, such as exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, from 47 540 participants enrolled in the ongoing Nurses’ Health Study II. The 3 generations analyzed in this study were the participants (F1 generation), their mothers (F0 generation), and their live-born children (F2 generation). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participant- and mother-reported exposure to diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and physician-diagnosed child ADHD.
The total number of women included in this study was 47 540. Of the 47 540 F0 mothers, 861 (1.8%) used diethylstilbestrol and 46 679 (98.2%) did not while pregnant with the F1 participants. Use of diethylstylbestrol by F0 mothers was associated with an increased risk of ADHD among the F2 generation: 7.7% vs 5.2%, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.10-1.67) and an OR of 1.63 (95% CI, 1.18-2.25) if diethylstilbestrol was taken during the first trimester of pregnancy. No effect modification was observed by the F2 children’s sex.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
This study provides evidence that diethylstilbestrol exposure is associated with multigenerational neurodevelopmental deficits. The doses and potency level of environmental endocrine disruptors to which humans are exposed are lower than those of diethylstilbestrol, but the prevalence of such exposure and the possibility of cumulative action are potentially high and thus warrant consideration.
- Full study (free access) : Association of Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol During Pregnancy With Multigenerational Neurodevelopmental Deficits, JAMA Pediatrics doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0727, May 21, 2018.
- Featured image by Andre Hunter.