Cryptorchidism : a major risk factor, 1983
In this case–control study of 108 cases of testicular cancer in men under 30 years of age,
- cryptorchidism was a major risk factor [relative risk (RR) = 9.0].
- Low birth weight was also associated with increased risk (RR = 3.2).
- Having severe acne at puberty was protective (RR = 0.37).
- Interviews with mothers of cases revealed that exposure of the mother to exogenous estrogen during pregnancy created a significant risk in the son (RR = 8.0).
- In first pregnancies, excessive nausea indicated an increased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 4.2).
- Increased body weight in the mother also increased the risk. The relation between these factors and testicular hypoplasia is discussed.
- Severe perimenopausal menorrhagia was a factor in the mother associated with reduced risk of testicular cancer in the son (RR = 0.10).
A modified hormonal milieu in the mother appears to be important in the later development of testicular cancer in her sons.
- Estrogen exposure during gestation and risk of testicular cancer, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, NCBI PubMed, PMID: 6140323, 1983 Dec.
- Featured image credit Sebastian Kanczok.