EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
Prenatal exposure to DES caused hypermethylation of the Hoxa10 gene in the uterus of mice and was linked to uterine hyperplasia and neoplasia later in life. Beyond the effects of prenatal exposure to DES on the daughters exposed in utero are suggestions that this leads to transgenerational effects of the chemical on the reproductive system, although whether this is linked to DNA methylation changes in humans is unknown.
DES caused histone deacetylation in the promoter region of the cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) gene.
Neonatal DES exposure also caused the differential expression of 900 genes in one or both layers of the uterus. Specifically, DES altered multiple factors in the PPARγ pathway that regulate adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, and it perturbed glucose homeostasis, suggesting that DES affects energy metabolism in the uterus. In the mouse uterus, DES altered the expression of chromatin-modifying proteins and Wnt signaling pathway members, caused epigenetic changes in the sine oculis homeobox 1 gene, and decreased the expression of angiogenic factors. DES also altered the expression of genes commonly involved in metabolism or endometrial cancer in mice, and it activated nongenomic signaling in uterine myometrial cells and increased the incidence of cystic glands in rats.
Studies in mice showed that DES induced vaginal adenosis by down-regulating RUNX1, which inhibits the BMP4/activin A-regulated vaginal cell fate decision; induced epithelial cell proliferation and inhibited stromal cell proliferation; and caused persistent down-regulation of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor expression (Hes1, Hey1, Heyl) in the vagina, leading to estrogen-independent epithelial cell proliferation. Neonatal exposure to DES caused persistent changes in expression of IGF-1 and its downstream signaling factors in mouse vaginas. It also up-regulated Wnt4, a factor correlated with the stratification of epithelial cells, in mouse vaginas. Interestingly, the simultaneous administration of vitamin D attenuated the ability of DES to cause hyperplasia of the vagina in neonatal mice.
In mice treated prenatally with DES there was a significant increase in enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) protein and EZH2 activity (measured by increased mammary histone H3 trimethylation)—a histone methyltransferase that may be linked to breast cancer risk and epigenetic regulation of tumorigenesis, as well as an increase in adult mammary gland EZH2.
EDC exposures to pregnant animals have been shown to cause multigenerational or transgenerational effects on a number of disease endpoints, particularly reproduction, neurobehavior, and adiposity. This work needs much more follow-up to better determine the underlying mechanisms, which are likely to include epigenetic molecular programming changes. Moreover, research is needed in human populations. Some work has been conducted in grandchildren of DES-exposed women who took this estrogenic pharmaceutical during pregnancy. The consequences on the offspring (F1 generation) are well-studied, and research is beginning to be published on the grandchildren (F2 generation). For environmental chemicals, several ongoing projects need continued funding.
- Full study (free access) : EDC-2: The Endocrine Society’s Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, NCBI PubMed PMC4702494, 2015 Nov 6.
- Featured image credit Craig Whitehead.