A bone culture system was used to compare the effects of several hormones on the response of 5-day-old mouse calvaria to parathyroid hormone (PTH).
The results showed that salmon calcitonin was almost 10-5 times more active than any other hormone in preventing the PTH-induced release of calcium and caused a dose-related inhibition of calcium release over a range of 0-2-200 milli MRC units/culture. A high dose of calcitonin (200 milli MRC units) caused a net accretion of calcium in the absence of PTH.
A comparison of the effects of the calcitonins, steroid hormones and thyroid hormones on the response of bone to parathyroid hormone in tissue culture, The Journal of endocrinology, NCBI PubMed PMID: 166133, 1975 Mar.
Progesterone and testosterone were more active than the naturally occurring oestrogens although a synthetic oestrogen (stillboestrol diphosphate) had approximately the same potency. High concentrations of these hormones caused a net accretion of calcium whether or not PTH was present. Cortisol was only effective at high doses, as was the steroid precursor cholesterol. In the present culture system the thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine) inhibited the action of PTH.
It was concluded that these agents acted in a similar fashion to the oestrogens. That is, they prevented the accumulation of citric acid induced by PTH by reducing the rate of glycolysis. None of the hormones affected the inhibition of citrate oxidation caused by PTH. The results also showed that, whilst these hormones inhibited PTH-mediated bone resorption, they had an action on bone independent of PTH. Experiments with clomiphene citrate failed to demonstrate an oestrogen receptor in bone.